Chemistry

GENERAL STUDIES

Chemistry

Course Description:

This course is a standards-based study of fundamental chemical concepts, such as atomic theory and its relation to chemical behavior, chemical bonding, the mole and stoichiometry, molecular kinetics, energy relationships, solution dynamics, acids-bases, equilibrium, organic and biological chemistry, and nuclear interactions. This course emphasizes problem-solving skills and is designed to 2014-01-09 14.38.09introduce students to both the descriptive and quantitative aspects of chemistry. When possible, new ideas are introduced through experiment or demonstration, with emphasis placed on the interpretation and analysis of data. The course teaches students to understand and apply chemical concepts while gaining an understanding of chemistry’s relationship with current societal issues and everyday life.

2014-01-09 14.13.07Course Objectives:

  • Students will explore the basic building blocks of matter, investigating the quantum structure of atoms, how that structure determines properties and the organization elements on the Periodic Table. They will investigate how atoms interact, bond, and create larger structures with predictable behaviors. Students will investigate basic techniques to quantify various properties and chemical interactions and understand the mathematical means of predicting outcomes of chemical and physical changes. They will also study thermodynamic principles and the mass actions of reaction rates and equilibria that govern chemical processes. Chemistry students also will consider the larger contexts and applications of these concepts, from organic and biochemical to nuclear processes.
  • Students will apply measurement, observation, statistical, and technological skills while investigating chemical concepts. Evidence and experimental data will be analyzed for reliability and possible sources of error. The use of well-designed, memorable laboratory experiences will facilitate this application of scientific knowledge and methodology and is essential in helping students to analyze the content critically. Students will learn how ethical considerations play an important role in modern chemistry-related fields and explore the importance of personal accountability in both individual and group work situations.
  • Students will improve their ability to learn independently by researching and drawing generalizations from science related articles, books, graphs, charts, and diagrams. Regular opportunities are provided for students to clearly communicate their understanding through oral and written explanations of science concepts and laboratory experiences.
  • Students will study the applications of chemistry to develop critical thinking skills.

 

Scope and Sequence:

Introduction to Chemistry

  • What is Chemistry
  • Using the Scientific Approach and Scientific Method

 

Measurements and Calculations

  • Units
  • Length, Volume, and Mass
  • Uncertainty in Measurements and Significant Figures
  • Unit Conversions
  • Density

 

Matter

  • Physical and Chemical Properties and Changes
  • Elements and Compounds
  • Pure Substances and Mixtures
  • Separation of Mixtures

 

Chemical Foundations: Elements, Atoms, and Ions

  • The Elements and Symbols
  • Dalton’s Atomic Theory
  • Formulas and Compounds
  • Structure of an Atom
  • Isotopes
  • Periodic Table
  • Natural States of Elements

 

Nomenclature

  • Naming Compounds
  • Naming Binary Compounds
  • Naming Compounds with Polyatomic Ions
  • Naming Acids
  • Writing Formulas with Names

 

Chemical Reactions

  • Evidence of Chemical Reactions
  • Chemical Equations
  • Balancing Chemical Equations

 

Reactions in Aqueous Solutions

  • Predicting Reactions
  • Reactions in Which a Solid Forms
  • Acid Base Reactions
  • Reactions of Metals and Non-Metals
  • Classifying Reactions

 

Chemical Composition

  • Atomic Masses: Counting Atoms by Weighing
  • The Mole and Molar Mass
  • Percent Compositions and Formulas of Compounds
  • Empirical Formula and Molecular Formula

 

Chemical Quantities

  • Information Given by Chemical Reactions
  • Mole-Mole Relationships and Mass Calculations
  • Limiting Reactants
  • Percent Yield

 

Energy

  • The Nature of Energy
  • Temperature and Heat; Exothermic and Endothermic Processes
  • Thermodynamics and Measuring Changes in Energy
  • Enthalpy – Thermochemistry
  • Hess’ Law
  • Quality vs. Quantity of Energy

 

Modern Atomic Theory

  • Rutherford’s Atom
  • Electromagnetic Radiation and Emission of Energy by Atoms
  • Energy Levels of Hydrogen
  • Bohr Model and Wave Mechanical Model
  • Hydrogen Orbitals and Electron Configurations
  • Atomic Properties of the Periodic Table

 

Chemical Bonding 

  • Types of Chemical Bonds
  • Electronegativity, Bond Polarity, and Diapole Moments
  • Stable Electron Configurations and Charges
  • Ionic Bonding and Ionic Compounds
  • Lewis Structures and Multiple Bonds
  • Molecular Structure and VSEPR Model
  • Molecules with Double Bonds

 

Gases                    

  • Pressure
  • Pressure and Volume: Boyle’s Law
  • Volume and Temperature: Charles’ Law
  • Volume and Moles: Avogadro’s Law
  • The Ideal Gas Law
  • Dalton’s Law of Partial Pressures
  • Kinetic Molecular Theory of Gases
  • Gas Stoichiometry

 

Liquids and Solids   

  • Water and Phase Changes
  • Energy Requirements for Changes of State
  • Inter-Molecular forces, Vapor Pressure, and Evaporation
  • Solid State – types of Solids
  •  Bonding in Solids

 

Solutions

  • Solutions
  • Mass Percent and Molarity
  • Dilution
  • Stoichiometry of Solution Reactions
  • Neutralization Reactions
  • Solution Composition

 

Acids and Bases

  • Acid Strength
  • Water as an Acid and a Base
  • The pH Scale
  • Buffered Solutions

 

Equilibrium

  • How Chemical Reactions Occur and Conditions that Alter Reaction Rates
  • The Equilibrium Condition: a Dynamic Condition
  • The Equilibrium Constant
  • Heterogeneous Equilibrium
  • Le Chatlier’s Principle
  • Solubility Equilibrium

 

Oxidation-Reduction Reactions and Electrochemistry

  • Oxidation States
  • Oxidation-Reduction Between Non-Metals
  • Electrochemistry and Electrolysis

 

Organic Chemistry

  • Carbon Bonding
  • Alkanes
  • Structural Formulas and Isomerism
  • Alkenes and Alkynes
  • Aromatic Hydrocarbons
  • Functional Groups
  • Alcohols, Aldehydes, and Ketones
  • Carboxylic Acids and Esters
  • Polymers

 

Biochemistry

  • Proteins
  • Enzymes
  • Carbohydrates
  • Nucleic Acids
  • Lipids